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. 2018 Jul 26;8(1):11296.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29568-3.

Tear Eicosanoids in Healthy People and Ocular Surface Disease

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Free PMC article

Tear Eicosanoids in Healthy People and Ocular Surface Disease

Yohannes Abere Ambaw et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Meibomian gland (MG) dysfunction is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye and it leads to inflammation of the ocular surface. Eicosanoids may be involved in inflammation of dry eye. This study aimed to profile tear eicosanoid levels in healthy individuals and those with MG dysfunction, and to examine if these levels are associated with clinical factors and expressibility of MG. Forty participants with MG dysfunction and 30 healthy controls were recruited in this study. Clinical signs of MG dysfunction were assessed, and tear lactoferrin concentration was evaluated. Tear eicosanoids were extracted from Schirmer's strips and analyzed using mass spectrometry. We were able to quantify 38 tear eicosanoids and levels were increased in older individuals. In participants with MG dysfunction, higher 5-HETE, LTB4, 18-HEPE, 12-HEPE and 14-HDoHE were associated with poorer MG expressibility. The eicosanoids PGF, 18-HEPE, 20-HDoHE and 17-HDoHE were elevated with increased corneal staining; higher 5-HETE, LTB4 were associated with lower tear lactoferrin levels. The receiver-operating-characteristics analysis shows higher levels of 5-HETE, LTB4 and 18-HEPE were able to predict poor expressibility of MGs. In conclusion, tear eicosanoid levels are age-dependent and specific eicosanoids may be indicators of clinical obstruction of MG or the severity of ocular surface damage.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Tear concentrations of two eicosanoids, TXB2 (A) and LTB4 (B) captured within each 5 mm (0–5, 5–10, 10–15, 15–20 and 20–25 mm) segment of Schirmer’s strips. Mean values were plotted. Error bars indicate standard errors of the means. mm: millimeter.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Heatmap showing the effect of age of participant and tear concentrations of eicosanoids. The color coding reflected the concentration levels of eicosanoids; red indicates high concentration, and blue indicates low concentration. Values were based on the log10 of absolute concentration (ng/mL) detected in reconstituted samples.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Scatter diagram showing relationship between tear eicosanoids and tear lactoferrin concentrations, Schirmer’s test results, goblet cell density scores. (AF) tear levels of 5-HETE, 9-HETE and LTB4 were inversely correlated to tear lactoferrin levels or Schirmer’s test. (G,H) showing lack of correlation between two lipids and goblet cell density. ρ: spearman’s correlation coefficient rho. p values indicated significance of the correlation.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) of the three eicosanoid lipids 5-HETE, 18-HETE and LTB4 separately (AC) and combined (D) to predict poor expressibility of liquid meibum. Diagonal line: line of no effect. The results of the ROC analysis were also shown in each panel. AUC: Area under the curve and its 95% confidence interval.

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