Data from epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that diet and eating patterns have a major role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated diseases. Since 1935, calorie restriction (CR) has been identified as one of the most effective nongenetic dietary interventions that can increase lifespan. It involves reducing calorie intake by about 20%-40% below ad libitum, without malnutrition. Restricting food intake has been observed to increase lifespan and prevent many age-associated diseases in rats, mice, and many other species. Understanding the metabolic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms involved in the anti-aging effects of CR can help us to find dietary interventions that can mimic its effects. Recently, different studies have shown that intermittent fasting, protein restriction, and an epigenetic diet can have similar effects to those of CR. These approaches were selected because it has been indicated that they act through a similar molecular pathway and also, are safe and effective in delaying or preventing diseases. In this review, we focus on the mechanistic pathway involved in CR. Then, we review the mimicking interventions through the mechanistic approach. For this purpose, we reviewed both animal and human articles, mainly available through the PubMed online database. We then selected the most relevant full texts which are summarized in this article.
Keywords: Calorie restriction; epigenetic diet; intermittent fasting; mechanism; protein restriction.