Precision medicine aims to offer "the right treatment to the right patient at the right time." In cardiovascular medicine the potential of precision medicine applies to all stages of the disease development and includes risk prediction, preventative measures, and targeted therapeutic approaches. Precision medicine will benefit from new developments in the area of genomics and other omics but equally heavily depends on established biomarkers, functional tests, and imaging. Cardiovascular medicine often relies on noninvasive diagnostic procedures and symptom-based disease management. In contrast, other clinical disciplines including oncology and immunology have already moved to molecular diagnostics that lend themselves to precision medicine approaches. There are opportunities to implement precision medicine approaches by focusing on common diseases such as hypertension, conditions with diagnostic and prognostic uncertainty such as angina, and conditions that are associated with high mortality and involve costly and potentially harmful interventions such as dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Sex and gender issues have not yet been fully explored in precision medicine although the opportunity to use molecular data to more accurately manage men and women with cardiovascular disease has been acknowledged. A mindshift is required in order to fully exploit the potential of precision medicine to tackle the global burden of cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: Big data; Biomarker; Gender; Genomics; Metabolomics; Personalized medicine; Precision medicine; Prevention; Proteomics; Sex; Stratified medicine.