Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Compared to traditional therapeutic strategies, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is one of the most advanced techniques for creating complicated cardiovascular implants with biomimetic features, which are capable of recapitulating both the native physiochemical and biomechanical characteristics of the cardiovascular system. The present review provides an overview of the cardiovascular system, as well as describes the principles of, and recent advances in, 3D bioprinting cardiovascular tissues and models. Moreover, this review will focus on the applications of 3D bioprinting technology in cardiovascular repair/regeneration and pharmacological modeling, further discussing current challenges and perspectives.
Keywords: 3D bioprinting; Cardiac tissue; Cardiovascular; Myocardium; Pharmacology; Regeneration; Tissue model; Valves; Vasculature.
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