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Review
. 2018 Nov 1;409:44-52.
doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2018.07.014. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

The Link of Organophosphorus Pesticides With Neurodegenerative and Neurodevelopmental Diseases Based on Evidence and Mechanisms

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Review

The Link of Organophosphorus Pesticides With Neurodegenerative and Neurodevelopmental Diseases Based on Evidence and Mechanisms

Sara Mostafalou et al. Toxicology. .

Abstract

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds have been known as the most widely used pesticides during the past half century and there have been a huge body of literature regarding their association with human chronic diseases. Neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders including Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism are among the afflicting neurological diseases which overshadow human life and their higher risk in relation to OP exposures have been uncovered by epidemiological studies. In addition, experimental studies exploring the underlying mechanisms have provided some evidence for involvement of cholinergic deficit, oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation, and epigenetic modifications as the processes which are common in the toxicity of the OP and pathophysiology of the mentioned diseases. In addition, genetic mutations and polymorphisms of different variants of some genes like paraoxonase have been shown to be implicated in both susceptibility to OPs toxicity and neurological diseases. In this article, we reviewed the epidemiological as well as experimental studies evidencing the association of exposure to OPs and incidence of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.

Keywords: Environmental toxicology; Neurodegenerative diseases; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Organophosphorus; Pesticides.

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