Prevalence of chloroquine resistance alleles among Plasmodium falciparum parasites in countries affected by malaria disease since change of treatment policy: a systematic review protocol

Syst Rev. 2018 Jul 27;7(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s13643-018-0780-z.


Background: Malaria remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in most low- and middle-income countries. Chloroquine is a previously cheap and effective antimalarial agent whose loss to resistance resulted in more than doubling of malaria-related mortality in malaria-endemic countries. Recently, chloroquine sensitivity is re-emerging among Plasmodium falciparum parasites which gives hope for malaria control and treatment efforts globally. The aim of the current review is to establish the prevalence of chloroquine resistance alleles among P. falciparum parasites in malaria-endemic areas after change in malaria treatment policy.

Methods/design: The articles will be obtained from search of MEDLINE via PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE data bases. The Mesh terms will be used in article search. Boolean operators ("AND," "OR") will be used in article search. The article search will be done independently by two librarians. The PRISMA-P statement will be used to guide the conduct and reporting of the systematic review. STREGA guideline will be used in developing data abstraction form for the review. Data abstraction will be done by two independent reviewers, Kappa statistic will be calculated, and any discrepancies resolved by discussion. Data analysis will be done using STATA ver 13.0. The level of heterogeneity in the articles will be established by using the I2-statistic. Publication bias will be assessed using funnel plot. Random effects analysis will be used.

Discussion: The review seeks to establish the extent of chloroquine resistance reversal in malaria-endemic countries. The evidence generated from this review will help guide policy makers on the potential re-emerging role of chloroquine in malaria treatment.

Systematic review registration: The systematic review protocol has been registered in PROSPERO with registration number CRD42018083957.

Keywords: Chloroquine; Plasmodium falciparum; Policy; Re-emergence; Sensitivity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles*
  • Animals
  • Antimalarials / pharmacology
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Chloroquine / pharmacology
  • Chloroquine / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Resistance / genetics
  • Guideline Adherence*
  • Humans
  • Malaria, Falciparum / drug therapy*
  • Malaria, Falciparum / parasitology
  • Parasites / genetics*
  • Plasmodium falciparum / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Prevalence


  • Antimalarials
  • Chloroquine