CRISPR-Cas genome editing creates targeted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are processed by cellular repair pathways, including the incorporation of exogenous DNA via single-strand template repair (SSTR). To determine the genetic basis of SSTR in human cells, we developed a coupled inhibition-cutting system capable of interrogating multiple editing outcomes in the context of thousands of individual gene knockdowns. We found that human Cas9-induced SSTR requires the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, which is normally implicated in interstrand cross-link repair. The FA pathway does not directly impact error-prone, non-homologous end joining, but instead diverts repair toward SSTR. Furthermore, FANCD2 protein localizes to Cas9-induced DSBs, indicating a direct role in regulating genome editing. Since FA is itself a genetic disease, these data imply that patient genotype and/or transcriptome may impact the effectiveness of gene editing treatments and that treatments biased toward FA repair pathways could have therapeutic value.