Urban population density and mortality in a compact Dutch city: 23-year follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE study

Health Place. 2018 Sep;53:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2018.06.010. Epub 2018 Jul 26.


We investigated the association and underlying pathways between urban population density and mortality in a compact mid-sized university city in the Netherlands. Baseline data from the GLOBE cohort study (N = 10,120 residents of Eindhoven) were linked to mortality after 23 years of follow up and analyzed in multilevel models. Higher population density was modestly related to increased mortality, independently of baseline socioeconomic position and health. Higher population density was related to more active transport, more perceived urban stress and smoking. Increased active transport suppressed the mortality-increasing impact of higher population density. Overall, in dense cities with good infrastructure for walking and cycling, high population density may negatively impact mortality.

Keywords: Health behaviour; Mortality; Neighbourhood effects; Population density; Urban stressors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cities
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality / trends*
  • Netherlands / epidemiology
  • Population Density*
  • Residence Characteristics / statistics & numerical data*
  • Urban Health
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data*