Risk factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Am J Epidemiol. 1977 Mar;105(3):223-32. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112378.


In a genetic-epidemiologic study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) observations adjusted for age, sex, race, and smoking indicate certain factors to be associated with increased pulmonary function aberrancy, and suggest that they are risk factors for COPD. These presumptive "risk factors" include not only cigarette smoking, but also alpha1-antitrypsin (Pi system) variation, one or more other familial components, low socioeconomic status (SES), and, in whites, ABO blood type (either absence of "B" or presence of "A").

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • ABO Blood-Group System
  • Bronchitis / etiology
  • Genetic Variation
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases, Obstructive / blood
  • Lung Diseases, Obstructive / etiology*
  • Lung Diseases, Obstructive / genetics
  • Maryland
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / etiology
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Risk
  • Smoking / complications
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency


  • ABO Blood-Group System
  • Protease Inhibitors