Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: From Discovery to Manufacturing and Commercialization

Stem Cells Int. 2018 Apr 11;2018:4083921. doi: 10.1155/2018/4083921. eCollection 2018.


Over the last decades, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been the focus of intense research by academia and industry due to their unique features. MSC can be easily isolated and expanded through in vitro culture by taking full advantage of their self-renewing capacity. In addition, MSC exert immunomodulatory effects and can be differentiated into various lineages, which makes them highly attractive for clinical applications in cell-based therapies. In this review, we attempt to provide a brief historical overview of MSC discovery, characterization, and the first clinical studies conducted. The current MSC manufacturing platforms are reviewed with special attention regarding the use of bioreactors for the production of GMP-compliant clinically relevant cell numbers. The first commercial MSC-based products are also addressed, as well as the remaining challenges to the widespread use of MSC-derived products.

Publication types

  • Review