Adenocarcinoma that occurs at the ileostomy site after proctocolectomy (TPC) with an end ileostomy for ulcerative colitis (UC) and/or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a late and uncommon complication. To ascertain the rate of adenocarcinoma at the empirical ileostomy site following TPC, a review of the literature was conducted. PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Google search engine, and the Cochrane Database were investigated for research published between January 1975 and December 2016. Search criteria included English language and human-only publications; broad search terms related to UC, FAP, ileostomy procedures, and dysplasias were used. Abstracts were eliminated if they were foreign language and nonhuman studies; editorials also were excluded. Secondary and hand/manual searches of reference lists, other studies cross-indexed by authors, reviews, commentaries, books, and meeting abstracts also were performed. Data extracted included age at diagnosis, operation technique, interval to ileostomy cancer, age when cancer was diagnosed, histology for both UC and FAP patients, and subsequent treatment. Papers were included on the basis of available evidence for each specific point of interest. Final and conclusive agreement was assessed with the k statistics during the title review and abstract review. Studies that did not report original data also were excluded. A total of 5753 publications were identified; 5697 publications did not conform to inclusion criteria and were eliminated. Among the reviewed publications (all case studies), 57 patients were diagnosed with ileostomy adenocarcinoma after TPC; 42 had UC, and 15 had FAP. The interval between TPC operation and ileostomy cancer diagnosis ranged from 3 to 51 years for UC and from 9 to 40 years for FAP, with a mean interval of 30 and 26 years, respectively. Biopsies were performed of all polypoid lesions found at the stoma site. Patients were treated with wide excision and refashioning (diversion) of the stoma. While adenocarcinoma arising at the mucocutaneous junction at the ileostomy site with adjacent skin invasion after TPC for UC and FAP appears to be rare, patients and clinicians need to be aware of this potential complication even years after surgery and regular screening is recommended.