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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2018 Aug;118(8):1439-1449.
doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1667001. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Clinical Impact of Bleeding in Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism: Results From the Hokusai VTE Cancer Study

Affiliations
Randomized Controlled Trial

Clinical Impact of Bleeding in Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism: Results From the Hokusai VTE Cancer Study

Noémie Kraaijpoel et al. Thromb Haemost. .

Abstract

In the Hokusai VTE Cancer study, edoxaban was non-inferior to dalteparin for the composite outcome of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding in 1,050 patients with cancer-associated VTE. The absolute rate of recurrent VTE was 3.4% lower with edoxaban, whereas the absolute rate of major bleeding was 2.9% higher. The present analysis focuses on the sites, clinical presentation, course and outcome of bleeding events, and the associated tumour types. Major bleeds and their severity (categories 1-4) were blindly adjudicated by a committee using a priori defined criteria, and data were analysed in the safety population. Major bleeding occurred in 32 of 522 patients given edoxaban (median treatment duration, 211 days) and in 16 of 524 patients treated with dalteparin (median treatment duration, 184 days); no patients had more than one major bleed. There were no fatal bleeds with edoxaban, and two with dalteparin. Severe bleeding at presentation (category 3 or 4) occurred in 10 (1.9%) and 11 (2.1%) patients in the edoxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively. The excess of major bleeding with edoxaban was confined to patients with gastrointestinal cancer. However, severe major bleeding at presentation (category 3 or 4) in this sub-group occurred in 5 of 165 (3.0%) and in 3 of 140 (2.1%) patients given edoxaban or dalteparin, respectively.In conclusion, this analysis suggests that while oral edoxaban is an appropriate alternative to subcutaneous dalteparin for treatment of cancer-associated VTE, the use of edoxaban in patients with gastrointestinal cancer requires careful benefit-risk weighting.

Conflict of interest statement

N. Kraaijpoel has nothing to disclose. M. Di Nisio reports personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo. F.I. Mulder has nothing to disclose. N. van Es reports personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo and Pfizer. J. Beyer-Westendorf reports grants and personal fees from Bayer AG, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Pfizer and Portola. M. Carrier reports grants from BMS and Leo Pharma, and personal fees from Pfizer, Bayer, Sanofi and Leo Pharma. D. Garcia reports grants and personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo, Janssen and Incyte, and personal fees from BMS and Boehringer-Ingelheim. M. Grosso, M.F. Mercuri, G. Zhang and L. Schwocho are employees of Daiichi Sankyo Inc. A.K. Kakkar reports grants and personal fees from Bayer AG, and personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, Janssen Pharma, Sanofi SA and Verseon. S. Middeldorp reports grants and personal fees from GSK, BMS/Pfizer, Aspen and Daiichi Sankyo, and personal fees from Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, and grants from Sanquin. C. Rojas Hernandez reports personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo. A. Santamaria reports personal fees from Bayer AG, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, LeoPharma, Sanofi-Aventis, Rovia and SOBI. A. Segers reports grants from Daiichi Sankyo, IONIS Pharmaceuticals and Janssen Pharmaceuticals. P. Verhamme reports grants and personal fees from Bayer Healthcare, LeoPharma, Daiichi Sankyo and Boehringer-Ingelheim, and personal fees from BMS, Portola, Medscape, Medtronic and Pfizer. T.F. Wang has nothing to disclose. J.I. Weitz reports personal fees from Daiichi-Sankyo, Bayer Healthcare, BMS, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Johnson and Johnson, Pfizer, Portola, Medscape and Novartis. J.I. Zwicker reports grants from Quercegen and Incyte, and personal fees from Daichii Sankyo and Parexel. H.R. Büller reports personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo, Bayer Healthcare, BMS/Pfizer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Portola, Medscape, Eli Lilly, Sanofi Aventis and Ionis. G.E. Raskob reports personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo, Itreas, Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Isis Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Pfizer and Portola.

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