Daily rhythms in behavior, physiology, and metabolism are an integral part of homeostasis. These rhythms emerge from interactions between endogenous circadian clocks and ambient light-dark cycles, sleep-activity cycles, and eating-fasting cycles. Nearly the entire primate genome shows daily rhythms in expression in tissue- and locus-specific manners. These molecular rhythms modulate several key aspects of cellular and tissue function with profound implications in public health, disease prevention, and disease management. In modern societies light at night disrupts circadian rhythms, leading to further disruption of sleep-activity and eating-fasting cycles. While acute circadian disruption may cause transient discomfort or exacerbate chronic diseases, chronic circadian disruption can enhance risks for numerous diseases. The molecular understanding of circadian rhythms is opening new therapeutic frontiers placing the circadian clock in a central role. Here, we review recent advancements on how to enhance our circadian clock through behavioral interventions, timing of drug administration, and pharmacological targeting of circadian clock components that are already providing new preventive and therapeutic strategies for several diseases, including metabolic syndrome and cancer.
Keywords: Rev-erb; chronotherapy; circadian clock; circadian rhythm disruption; shift work; time-restricted eating.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.