Lifestyle Intervention in Danish Obese Pregnant Women With Early Gestational Diabetes Mellitus According to WHO 2013 Criteria Does Not Change Pregnancy Outcomes: Results From the LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) Study

Diabetes Care. 2018 Oct;41(10):2079-2085. doi: 10.2337/dc18-0808. Epub 2018 Jul 30.


Objective: To study effects of lifestyle intervention on metabolic and clinical outcomes in obese women fulfilling the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early gestation.

Research design and methods: Secondary analysis of data from the Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) study, a lifestyle randomized controlled trial in 304 pregnant women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Early GDM (week 12-15) was diagnosed according to modified WHO 2013 GDM criteria: fasting venous plasma glucose ≥5.1 mmol/L and/or 2-h capillary blood glucose (CBG) ≥8.5 mmol/L (75-g oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]). Women with treated GDM fulfilling local Danish GDM criteria (2-h CBG ≥9.0 mmol/L) (n = 16) and women with normal OGTT (n = 198) were excluded.

Results: Of 90 women with early GDM, 36 received lifestyle intervention and 54 standard care. All were Caucasian, and median age was 29 years (interquartile range 27-33) and BMI 34.5 kg/m2 (32.3-38.1). All baseline characteristics were similar in the lifestyle intervention and standard care groups. At gestational week 28-30, the women in the lifestyle intervention group had significantly higher fasting total cholesterol and fasting LDL. All other metabolic parameters including measurements of glucose, insulin, and HOMA of insulin resistance were similar. There were more planned cesarean sections in the lifestyle intervention group (22.2 vs. 5.6%), but all other obstetric outcomes were similar.

Conclusions: Lifestyle intervention in obese women fulfilling WHO 2013 GDM criteria in early pregnancy was not effective in improving obstetric or metabolic outcomes. Future studies should focus on interventions starting prepregnancy.

Trial registration: NCT00530439.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood
  • Diabetes, Gestational / diagnosis
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology
  • Diabetes, Gestational / therapy*
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine / standards
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Glucose Tolerance Test / standards
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / therapy*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Complications / therapy*
  • Pregnancy Outcome* / epidemiology
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*
  • World Health Organization


  • Blood Glucose

Associated data