Variations in human mtDNA restriction endonuclease fragment patterns were investigated in a sample number of 81 Israelis--Jews and Arabs--using total blood cell DNA. Eight new morphs were observed using five enzymes: HpaI, BamHI, HaeII, MspI, and AvaII. Of the 18 different combinations of fragment patterns (mtDNA types), only three were shared by both groups, but with striking frequency differences. The Arab sample disclosed "African" characteristics and was found to be slightly more polymorphic than the Israeli sample. One of the new types filled a "missing link" originally postulated in a phylogeny of mtDNA human types.