Chemical Compositions of Cold-Pressed Broccoli, Carrot, and Cucumber Seed Flours and Their in Vitro Gut Microbiota Modulatory, Anti-inflammatory, and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Sep 5;66(35):9309-9317. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03343. Epub 2018 Aug 21.


Carrot, cucumber, and broccoli seed flours were extracted with 50% acetone and evaluated for their phytochemical compositions along with their potential gut microbiota modulating, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory capacities. Nine and ten compounds were detected in the broccoli and carrot seed flour extracts, with kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside and glucoraphanin as the primary component of each, respectively. All three seed flour extracts enhanced total number of gut bacteria and altered the abundance of specific bacterial phylum or genus in vitro. The broccoli seed flour extract had the greatest relative DPPH radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbing capacity, and hydroxyl radical (HO) scavenging capacity values of 85, 634, and 270 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/g, respectively. Carrot seed flour extract showed the greatest ABTS•+ scavenging capacity of 250 μmol TE/g. Also, three seed flour extracts suppressed LPS induced IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expressions in J774A.1 cells. The results might be used to promote the value-added utilization of these vegetable seed flours in improving human health.

Keywords: LC−MS; anti-inflammation; antioxidant; microbiota; seed flour.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Brassica / chemistry*
  • Cold Temperature
  • Cucumis sativus / chemistry*
  • Daucus carota / chemistry*
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Flour / analysis
  • Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry*
  • Free Radical Scavengers / isolation & purification
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Seeds / chemistry


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Plant Extracts