Gene and miRNA expression in giant cell arteritis-a concise systematic review of significantly modified studies

Clin Rheumatol. 2019 Feb;38(2):307-316. doi: 10.1007/s10067-018-4231-y. Epub 2018 Aug 1.


Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis in individuals older than 50 years, characterized by headaches, visual disturbances, painful scalp, jaw claudication, impairment of limb arteries, and systemic inflammation, among other symptoms. GCA diagnosis is confirmed by a positive temporal artery biopsy (TAB) or by imaging modalities. A prominent acute phase response with inflammation is the hallmark of the disease, predominantly targeting large- and medium-sized arteries leading to stenosis or occlusion of arterial lumen. To date, there are no reliable tissue markers specific for GCA. Scarce reports have indicated the importance of epigenetics in GCA. The current systematic review reports significantly changed candidate biomarkers in TABs of GCA patients compared to non-GCA patients using qPCR.

Keywords: Giant cell arteritis; Temporal artery biopsy; Vasculitis; mRNA expression; miRNA.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • DNA Methylation
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Gene Expression*
  • Giant Cell Arteritis / diagnosis*
  • Giant Cell Arteritis / genetics*
  • Giant Cell Arteritis / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • Temporal Arteries / pathology*


  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • MicroRNAs