Correlation of 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Echocardiographic Analysis to Surgical Measurements of the Tricuspid Valve Annular Diameter

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2019 Jan;33(1):137-145. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2018.05.048. Epub 2018 Jun 2.


Objective: This study sought to determine if 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography would more closely correspond to direct surgical measurements of the maximal tricuspid valve (TV) annular diameter than 2-dimensional (2D) measurements.

Design: Prospective study.

Setting: The cardiothoracic operating rooms (ORs) at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York, NY.

Participants: Fifty-nine patients over 18 years of age underwent elective mitral valve surgery for severe mitral regurgitation from 2014 to 2015.

Interventions: None.

Measurements and main results: Two-dimensional and 3D data sets and surgical TV annular dimensions were measured. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted and absolute differences were compared using paired t tests and the McNemar test. The observed mean difference between the 2D measurements by transgastric right ventricular diastolic view and the surgical measurements was 0.21 cm (standard deviation [SD] = 0.36 cm); the mean difference between the 3D measurements and surgical measures was -0.03 cm (SD = 0.19 cm). The McNemar test showed that the rate of highly successful measurements, defined as those within 0.2 cm of the true surgical score, using the 3D technique (66%) was significantly better than the rate of highly successful measurements using the 2D technique (25%), p< 0.01, 2-sided.

Conclusion: Three-dimensional imaging and measurement of the TV annular diameter is feasible in the OR setting. The superiority of the 3D measurements versus 2D measurements allows for greater precision and accuracy and may guide better intraoperative surgical decision-making.

Keywords: 2D and 3D echo; echocardiography; heart valve repair; tricuspid valve.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal / methods*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intraoperative Period
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / diagnosis
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / surgery*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Tricuspid Valve / diagnostic imaging*
  • Tricuspid Valve / surgery