Background: Equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) cause diarrhea in suckling foals. The dominant RVAs circulating among horses worldwide, including Japan, are G3P and/or G14P genotypes. Inactivated vaccines containing a G3P RVA are commercially available in some countries for prevention of diarrhea caused by equine RVAs. However, there is no reported evidence whether vaccines containing a G3P RVA are effective against G14P RVAs or whether using a G14P RVA results in a more effective vaccine. This study used a suckling mouse model to evaluate the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines containing G3P (G3 vaccine) or G14P (G14 vaccine) RVAs against G3P and G14P RVAs.
Methods: Female mice were inoculated twice with G3 or G14 vaccines, and were then mated. After parturition, suckling mice were challenged with one of either two G3P RVAs, two G14P RVAs, or one G13P RVA. After virus inoculation, suckling mice were observed for diarrhea, and the incidence rates of diarrhea in the vaccinated groups were compared with those in the non-vaccinated groups.
Results: Following G3P RVA challenge, suckling mice in the G3 and G14 vaccinated groups had significantly lower rates of diarrhea incidence than did those in the non-vaccinated group, and the rates in the G3 vaccinated group tended to be lower than in the G14 vaccinated group. Following G14P RVA challenge, suckling mice in the G14 vaccinated group had significantly lower rates of diarrhea incidence than did those in the non-vaccinated and G3 vaccinated groups. The G3 and G14 vaccines did not reduce the rate when challenged with the G13P RVA.
Conclusion: The mouse model showed that the G3 and G14 vaccines were both effective against G3P RVAs, and that the G14 vaccine was effective against G14P RVAs. These results suggest that at least a G14 RVA strain should be included in as a vaccine strain.
Keywords: Equine; G14P; G3P; Inactivated vaccine; Rotavirus; Suckling mouse model.
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