Evaluation of inactivated vaccines against equine group A rotaviruses by use of a suckling mouse model

Vaccine. 2018 Sep 5;36(37):5551-5555. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.057. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Abstract

Background: Equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) cause diarrhea in suckling foals. The dominant RVAs circulating among horses worldwide, including Japan, are G3P[12] and/or G14P[12] genotypes. Inactivated vaccines containing a G3P[12] RVA are commercially available in some countries for prevention of diarrhea caused by equine RVAs. However, there is no reported evidence whether vaccines containing a G3P[12] RVA are effective against G14P[12] RVAs or whether using a G14P[12] RVA results in a more effective vaccine. This study used a suckling mouse model to evaluate the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines containing G3P[12] (G3 vaccine) or G14P[12] (G14 vaccine) RVAs against G3P[12] and G14P[12] RVAs.

Methods: Female mice were inoculated twice with G3 or G14 vaccines, and were then mated. After parturition, suckling mice were challenged with one of either two G3P[12] RVAs, two G14P[12] RVAs, or one G13P[18] RVA. After virus inoculation, suckling mice were observed for diarrhea, and the incidence rates of diarrhea in the vaccinated groups were compared with those in the non-vaccinated groups.

Results: Following G3P[12] RVA challenge, suckling mice in the G3 and G14 vaccinated groups had significantly lower rates of diarrhea incidence than did those in the non-vaccinated group, and the rates in the G3 vaccinated group tended to be lower than in the G14 vaccinated group. Following G14P[12] RVA challenge, suckling mice in the G14 vaccinated group had significantly lower rates of diarrhea incidence than did those in the non-vaccinated and G3 vaccinated groups. The G3 and G14 vaccines did not reduce the rate when challenged with the G13P[18] RVA.

Conclusion: The mouse model showed that the G3 and G14 vaccines were both effective against G3P[12] RVAs, and that the G14 vaccine was effective against G14P[12] RVAs. These results suggest that at least a G14 RVA strain should be included in as a vaccine strain.

Keywords: Equine; G14P[12]; G3P[12]; Inactivated vaccine; Rotavirus; Suckling mouse model.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Suckling
  • Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • Diarrhea / veterinary
  • Diarrhea / virology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Feces / virology
  • Female
  • Genome, Viral
  • Genotype
  • Horse Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Horse Diseases / virology
  • Horses
  • Mice
  • Phylogeny
  • Rotavirus
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Rotavirus Infections / veterinary*
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated

Substances

  • Rotavirus Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated