Purpose: Maintaining high water intake decreases kidney stone recurrence but is difficult to do. Strategies to reduce stone recurrence among adolescents are lacking. We conducted an ecological momentary assessment study to identify factors associated with water intake in adolescents with nephrolithiasis.
Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 15 female and 10 male patients 12 to 18 years old with at least 1 prior kidney stone. For 7 days participants used "smart" bottles to self-monitor water intake and received questionnaires randomly 4 times daily, which were completed in real time on mobile devices. The questionnaires ascertained awareness of water intake volume, awareness of water intake goals, perceived need to drink, access to water, alternative beverage consumption and attitudes toward bathrooms. Linear mixed effects models were fit to estimate the association between momentary responses and daily water intake.
Results: During 175 person-days 595 assessments (85%) were completed. Median daily water intake was 1,304 ml (IQR 848-1,832) and 20% of participants met their intake goal for 4 days or more. Unawareness of water intake volume was associated with drinking 690 ml less water per day (p = 0.04). A strong self-perceived need to drink more was associated with drinking 1,954 ml less water each day compared to no self-perceived need to drink more (p <0.01). Unawareness of intake goals was weakly associated with drinking 1,129 ml less water each day (p = 0.1). Access to water, alternative beverage consumption and bathroom aversion were not associated with water intake.
Conclusions: Unawareness of water volume consumed and low responsiveness to perceived need to drink more were associated with low water intake. Interventions that help adolescents recognize when and identify how to increase water intake may be effective in decreasing stone recurrence.