Mushroom Poisoning Cases in Dogs and Cats: Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatotoxic, Neurotoxic, Gastroenterotoxic, Nephrotoxic, and Muscarinic Mushrooms

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2018 Nov;48(6):1053-1067. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2018.06.008. Epub 2018 Aug 1.


Ingestion of poisonous mushrooms by small animals can lead to liver failure, neurotoxicity, or gastrointestinal irritation. Although amanita poisoning can be lethal, ingestion of other toxic mushrooms is generally self-limiting and not life threatening. Most cases are undiagnosed, as routine diagnostic tests only exist for amanitins and psilocin. Early detection of amanitin exposure can greatly aid in the therapeutic intervention by allowing veterinarians to make timely decisions regarding patient management. Treatment is generally supportive, but specific therapeutic measures exist for amanitin and psilocin exposures.

Keywords: Amanita; Amanitins; Gastrointestinal irritation; Hepatotoxic mushrooms; Liver failure; Neurotoxicosis; Psilocin; Toxicosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cat Diseases* / chemically induced
  • Cat Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Cat Diseases* / physiopathology
  • Cat Diseases* / therapy
  • Cats
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury / veterinary
  • Dog Diseases* / chemically induced
  • Dog Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Dog Diseases* / physiopathology
  • Dog Diseases* / therapy
  • Dogs
  • Emetics / therapeutic use
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / veterinary
  • Kidney Diseases / chemically induced
  • Kidney Diseases / veterinary
  • Mushroom Poisoning / diagnosis
  • Mushroom Poisoning / physiopathology
  • Mushroom Poisoning / therapy
  • Mushroom Poisoning / veterinary*
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes / veterinary


  • Emetics