Aim: To determine the incidence and associated factors of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) in a Portuguese central hospital.
Methods: This single-center retrospective study involved consecutive adult nondiabetic transplant recipients, who had undergone kidney transplantation between January 2012 and March 2016. NODAT was diagnosed according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Data were collected from an institutional database of the Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation Department (Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal) and augmented with data of laboratorial parameters collected from the corresponding patient electronic medical records. Exclusion criteria were preexisting diabetes mellitus, missing information and follow-up period of less than 12 mo. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics as well as anthropometric and laboratorial parameters were also collected. Patients were divided into two groups: With and without NODAT - for statistical comparison.
Results: A total of 156 patients received kidney transplant during the study period, 125 of who were included in our analysis. NODAT was identified in 27.2% of the patients (n = 34; 53% female; mean age: 49.5 ± 10.8 years; median follow-up: 36.4 ± 2.5 mo). The incidence in the first year was 24.8%. The median time to diagnosis was 3.68 ± 5.7 mo after transplantation, and 76.5% of the patients developed NODAT in the first 3 mo. In the group that did not develop NODAT (n = 91), 47% were female, with mean age of 46.4 ± 13.5 years and median follow-up of 35.5 ± 1.6 mo. In the NODAT group, the pretransplant fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were significantly higher [101 (96.1-105.7) mg/dL vs 92 (91.4-95.8) mg/dL, P = 0.007] and pretransplant impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was significantly more frequent (51.5% vs 27.7%, P = 0.01). Higher pretransplant FPG levels and pretransplant IFG were found to be predictive risk factors for NODAT development [odds ratio (OR): 1.059, P = 0.003; OR: 2.772, P = 0.017, respectively].
Conclusion: NODAT incidence was high in our renal transplant recipients, particularly in the first 3 mo posttransplant, and higher pretransplant FPG level and IFG were risk factors.
Keywords: Immunosuppression; Impaired fasting glucose; Incidence; Kidney transplantation; New-onset diabetes after transplant.