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. 2018 Aug 3;10(8):1015.
doi: 10.3390/nu10081015.

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease: Early Detection for Better Long-Term Outcomes

Free PMC article

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease: Early Detection for Better Long-Term Outcomes

Pilvi Laurikka et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article


Population-based screening studies have shown celiac disease to be one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Nevertheless, because of the diverse clinical presentation, the great majority of patients remain unrecognized. Particularly difficult to identify are the multifaceted extraintestinal symptoms that may appear at variable ages. Although the pathogenesis and long-term outcome of these manifestations are still poorly established, there is some evidence that unrecognized celiac disease predisposes to severe complications if not diagnosed and prevented with an early-initiated gluten-free diet. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that physicians of different disciplines learn to recognize celiac disease in individuals with non-gastrointestinal symptoms. In the future, more studies are needed to clarify the factors affecting development and prognosis of the extraintestinal manifestations.

Keywords: celiac disease; clinical presentation; diagnosis; extraintestinal; gluten-free diet; prognosis; recognition.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Extra-intestinal manifestations and complications of celiac disease classified based on their response to early initiated gluten-free diet (GFD) and typical age of development.

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