Antibiotic stewardship: a milestone in everyday clinical practice Infectious diseases caused by multi-resistant pathogens are increasing worldwide and are challenging for clinicians, also in urological setting. The alarming situation is worsened by the limited perspective of new antibiotic developments. Several authors demonstrated that in Italy we have alarming data about resistance rates: in Campania about 58% of Escherichia coli are resistant to fluroquinolones, as 46% to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. On the other hand, the resistance rate against fosfomycin is still low less than 5%. More alarming data are reported about Klebsiella pneumoniae: resistance rate to flurquinolones 65% and 58% to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. A continuing uncritical, non-guideline-conform and overuse of antibiotics leads to selection of multidrug-resistant pathogens, which can colonize patients and make the treatment a real challenge. A revision of our approach to urinary tract infections at the light of antibiotic stewardiship principles are urgently required, in particular starting from the everyday clinical practice.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Antibiotic stewardship; Multidrug-resistant bacteria; Urinary tract infections.