Chronic hyperlipidemia causes the dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells, such as apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion, which are aggravated in the presence of hyperglycemia. The underlying mechanisms, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders, have been reported before; however, the time sequence of these molecular events is not fully understood. Here, using isobaric labeling-based mass spectrometry, we investigated the dynamic proteomes of INS-1 cells exposed to high palmitate in the absence and presence of high glucose. Using bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed proteins, including the time-course expression pattern, protein-protein interaction, gene set enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis, we analyzed the dynamic features of previously reported and newly identified lipotoxicity- and glucolipotoxicity-related molecular events in more detail. Our temporal data highlight cholesterol metabolism occurring at 4 h, earlier than fatty acid metabolism that started at 8 h and likely acting as an early toxic event highly associated with ER stress induced by palmitate. Interestingly, we found that the proliferation of INS-1 cells was significantly increased at 48 h by combined treatment of palmitate and glucose. Moreover, benefit from the time-course quantitative data, we identified and validated two new molecular targets: Setd8 for cell replication and Rhob for apoptosis, demonstrating that our temporal dataset serves as a valuable resource to identify potential candidates for mechanistic studies of lipotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells.
Keywords: Cell biology; Diabetes; Glucolipotoxicity; Lipotoxicity; Mass Spectrometry; Molecular biology; Protein Identification; Proteome; Quantification; beta Cells.
© 2018 Li et al.