Coffee Drinking and Associated Factors in an Elderly Population in Spain

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Aug 6;15(8):1661. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081661.


Coffee consumption is highly prevalent worldwide, and many studies have reported positive and inverse associations of coffee with many diseases. However, factors associated with coffee consumption remain poorly characterized in some populations, such as the elderly. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption in an elderly population in Spain. Data were analyzed from 903 participants, aged 65 years and above, from two population-based studies carried out in the Valencia region in Spain (Valencia Nutritional Survey (VNS) and European Eye Study (EUREYE-Study). Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption was assessed through two specific questions using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Information on personal characteristics, anthropometry and lifestyles was collected in personal interviews. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) and confidence intervals (95% CI). The prevalence of total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption was 70%, 38% and 32%, respectively. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was positively associated with: Educational level, RRR = 1.63 (1.09⁻2.44); body mass index (≥30), RRR = 2.03 (1.05⁻3.95); tobacco smoking, RRR = 1.96 (1.13⁻3.39); alcohol intake [≥12 g/day category intake vs. no-alcohol intake, RRR = 6.25 (3.56⁻10.95)]; and energy intake (p < 0.05). Consumption of caffeinated coffee was negatively associated with: Age (≥75 years), RRR = 0.64 (0.43⁻0.94); and pre-existing hypertension, RRR = 0.67 (0.45⁻0.98). The consumption of decaffeinated coffee was positively associated with: Alcohol intake, RRR = 2.63 (1.19⁻4.64); pre-existing diabetes, RRR = 1.67 (1.06⁻2.62); and energy intake (p < 0.01). The consumption of coffee is high among elderly people in Spain. It is a novelty in this study with elderly population that tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking were the two main factors associated with higher coffee consumption. Self-reported hypertension was associated with a lower consumption of caffeinated coffee, and pre-existing diabetes was associated with a higher consumption of decaffeinated coffee. These associations should be taken into account when the health effects of coffee consumption are investigated.

Keywords: caffeinated; coffee; consumption; decaffeinated; elderly; factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • Caffeine / analysis*
  • Coffee*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / etiology
  • Drinking*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Risk
  • Spain / epidemiology


  • Coffee
  • Caffeine