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An X-band Bi-Directional Transmit/Receive Module for a Phased Array System in 65-nm CMOS

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An X-band Bi-Directional Transmit/Receive Module for a Phased Array System in 65-nm CMOS

Van-Viet Nguyen et al. Sensors (Basel).

Abstract

We present an X-band bi-directional transmit/receive module (TRM) for a phased array system utilized in radar-based sensor systems. The proposed module, comprising a 6-bit phase shifter, a 6-bit digital step attenuator, and bi-directional gain amplifiers, is fabricated using 65-nm CMOS technology. By constructing passive networks in the phase-shifter and the variable attenuator, the implemented TRM provides amplitude and phase control with 360° phase coverage and 5.625° as the minimum step size while the attenuation range varies from 0 to 31.5 dB with a step size of 0.5 dB. The fabricated T/R module in all of the phase shift states had RMS phase errors of less than 4° and an RMS amplitude error of less than 0.93 dB at 9⁻11 GHz. The output 1dB gain compression point (OP1dB) of the chip was 5.13 dBm at 10 GHz. The circuit occupies 3.92 × 2.44 mm² of the chip area and consumes 170 mW of DC power.

Keywords: T/R module; attenuator; bi-directional gain amplifier; phase shifter; phased array antenna; radar-based sensors.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
A block diagram of the proposed X-band TRM.
Figure 2
Figure 2
A block diagram of the proposed 6-bit phase shifter.
Figure 3
Figure 3
The passive structure of the 11.25 (a) and 22.5 (b) phase shift units simulated with HFSS.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Circuit schematics of the SPDT (a) and DPDT (b) switches.
Figure 5
Figure 5
A schematic illustration of the double-well body-floating technique.
Figure 6
Figure 6
The passive structure of the SPDT (a) and DPDT (b) switches simulated with HFSS.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Simulated relative phase shift levels in the main states of the phase shifter block.
Figure 8
Figure 8
The RMS phase and amplitude errors in all of the phase shifter’s phase shift states.
Figure 9
Figure 9
A block diagram of the 6-bit attenuator.
Figure 10
Figure 10
A schematic of the Pi-type resistive attenuator cell (a) and simplified models of it in the OFF (b) and ON (c) states.
Figure 11
Figure 11
The simulated relative attenuation levels in the main states of the attenuator block.
Figure 12
Figure 12
The RMS phase and amplitude errors in all of the attenuator’s attenuation states.
Figure 13
Figure 13
A circuit schematic of the proposed BDGA with six stages of gain cells.
Figure 14
Figure 14
The simulated S-parameters of the BDGA.
Figure 15
Figure 15
The simulated input/output power characteristics of the BDGA.
Figure 16
Figure 16
The group delay of the BDGA at frequencies from 6–14 GHz.
Figure 17
Figure 17
A microphotograph of the X-band bi-directional transmit/receive module.
Figure 18
Figure 18
The block diagram of S-parameters, phase and attenuation response measurement setup as a function of the control bits.
Figure 19
Figure 19
The block diagram of the output power and the gain compression measurement setup as a function of the input power (AM-AM).
Figure 20
Figure 20
The measured S-parameters of the implemented TRM.
Figure 21
Figure 21
The measured noise figure of the implemented TRM.
Figure 22
Figure 22
The measured output power and gain of the implemented TRM at different frequencies.
Figure 23
Figure 23
The measured AM/PM conversion of the implemented TRM at different frequencies.
Figure 24
Figure 24
The relative phase shift levels of the fabricated TRM vs. the control bits over frequency.
Figure 25
Figure 25
The measured phase shift levels vs. ideal values at 10 GHz as a function the control bits.
Figure 26
Figure 26
The relative attenuation levels of the TRM vs. the control bits over frequency.
Figure 27
Figure 27
The measured attenuation levels vs. expected levels of the TRM at 10 GHz.
Figure 28
Figure 28
The worst RMS phase and amplitude errors vs. frequency in all of the TRM phase shift states.
Figure 29
Figure 29
The worst RMS phase and amplitude errors vs. frequency in all of the TRM attenuation states.
Figure 30
Figure 30
The phase errors of all phase shifting states at different frequencies.
Figure 31
Figure 31
The attenuation errors of all attenuating states at different frequencies.

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