Distribution Analysis of Twelve Mycotoxins in Corn and Corn-Derived Products by LC-MS/MS to Evaluate the Carry-Over Ratio during Wet-Milling

Toxins (Basel). 2018 Aug 6;10(8):319. doi: 10.3390/toxins10080319.


This study investigated the distribution of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂; ochratoxin A; fumonisins B₁ and B₂; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone; T-2 toxin; and HT-2 toxin) in corn and corn by-products (corn bran, cornstarch, corn gluten, corn gluten feed, corn germ, light steep water, and corn steep liquor) produced by wet-milling in Korea. Fifty-two samples were collected from three factories producing cornstarch and other corn by-products. The samples were pretreated on an immunoaffinity column (IAC), and then the levels of the 12 mycotoxins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography-coupled triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fusarium mycotoxins were mainly found in raw corn and corn gluten feed samples. Other mycotoxins-such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and HT-2 toxin-were detected in tiny amounts below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in cornstarch, corn germ, and corn bran. Ochratoxin A and nivalenol were mainly carried over into cornstarch. Aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and the fumonisins were concentrated in corn gluten feed. Zearalenone was evenly distributed in all corn by-products except cornstarch during the milling process.

Keywords: LC-MS/MS analysis; corn; corn by-products; mycotoxin; wet-milling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Food Handling
  • Mycotoxins / analysis*
  • Republic of Korea
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Zea mays / chemistry*


  • Mycotoxins