Memory B cells (Bmem cells) are the basis of long-lasting humoral immunity. They respond to re-encountered antigens by rapidly producing specific antibodies and forming germinal centers (GCs), a recall response that has been known for decades but remains poorly understood. We found that the receptor for the cytokine IL-9 (IL-9R) was induced selectively on Bmem cells after primary immunization and that IL-9R-deficient mice exhibited a normal primary antibody response but impaired recall antibody responses, with attenuated population expansion and plasma-cell differentiation of Bmem cells. In contrast, there was augmented GC formation, possibly due to defective downregulation of the ligand for the co-stimulatory receptor ICOS on Bmem cells. A fraction of Bmem cells produced IL-9. These findings indicate that IL-9R signaling in Bmem cells regulates humoral recall responses.