Gene US9 of herpes simplex virus type 1 has been predicted, from DNA sequence analysis, to encode a protein of mol wt 10,026, designated 10K (D.J. McGeoch, A. Dolan, S. Donald, and F.J. Rixon (1985). J. Mol. Biol. 181, 1-13). We have investigated this protein by using a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 11 amino acids adjacent to the amino-terminal methionine and rasing antisera in rabbits. One antiserum was able to precipitate at least 12 electrophoretically distinct polypeptide species from extracts of BHK cells infected with HSV-1. The estimated molecular weights of these polypeptides ranged from 12K to 20K and immunoblotting showed them to be related proteins. The primary translation product has an apparent mol wt of 13K. The various forms of 10K differ in their relative abundance in the infected cell and also in their degree of phosphorylation. Lower molecular weight forms of the 10K protein can be precipitated from NP-40 extracts of HSV-1 virions, suggesting that these forms of 10K are contained in the virion tegument or envelope. An association between this protein and nucleocapsids has also been observed in the nuclei of infected cells by immunoelectron microscopy. These observations imply that the product of US9 is a tegument protein which becomes associated with nucleocapsids at, or soon after, their formation in the nuclei of infected cells.