Background: Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the impact of the UGT1A4*3 variant allele on lamotrigine (LTG) exposure. As no studies have controlled for nongenetic factors, the aim of this study was to compare serum concentrations of LTG in carriers versus noncarriers of UGT1A4*3 adjusting for differences in age, sex, and valproic acid (VPA) comedication.
Methods: Matched data on serum concentration of LTG and UGT1A4 genotype patients with known information about VPA comedication were included retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Linear mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the UGT1A4*3 variant on dose-adjusted serum concentrations (C/D ratio) of LTG. Subanalyses were performed to assess the impact of UGT1A4*3 in relation to age, sex, and VPA comedication.
Results: In total, 534 patients (1735 LTG serum concentrations) were included. In the study population, UGT1A4*3 carriers (n = 87; 16.3%) were estimated to have a 13% lower LTG C/D ratio compared with noncarriers (P = 0.01). Subanalyses showed that the quantitative impact of UGT1A4*3 was greatest in postmenopausal women (>50 years) without VPA comedication. In these patients (n = 99), UGT1A4*3 carriers displayed a 40% lower LTG C/D ratio than noncarriers (P = 0.001). The UGT1A4*3 variant had no significant effect on LTG C/D ratio in the other subpopulations (P > 0.1). Regardless of patient subgroup, the concomitant use of VPA was the strongest determinant of LTG exposure by increasing the C/D ratio 2.5-fold (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: This study shows that UGT1A4*3 generally has a modest impact on LTG exposure, but it could lead to clinically relevant lowering in LTG serum concentration among postmenopausal women. The clinical impact of UGT1A4*3 in these patients needs to be assessed in relation to comedication with VPA, which is associated with a substantial increase in serum concentration of LTG.