Genetic influence alters the brain synchronism in perception and timing

J Biomed Sci. 2018 Aug 7;25(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s12929-018-0463-z.


Background: Studies at the molecular level aim to integrate genetic and neurobiological data to provide an increasingly detailed understanding of phenotypes related to the ability in time perception.

Main text: This study suggests that the polymorphisms genetic SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, 5HTR2A T102C, DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1A, SLC6A3 3'-UTR VNTR, COMT Val158Met, CLOCK genes and GABRB2 A/C as modification factor at neurochemical levels associated with several neurofunctional aspects, modifying the circadian rhythm and built-in cognitive functions in the timing. We conducted a literature review with 102 studies that met inclusion criteria to synthesize findings on genetic polymorphisms and their influence on the timing.

Conclusion: The findings suggest an association of genetic polymorphisms on behavioral aspects related in timing. However, order to confirm the paradigm of association in the timing as a function of the molecular level, still need to be addressed future research.

Keywords: Circadian rhythm; Dopamine; GABA; Genetic polymorphisms; Serotonin; Time perception.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics*
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology
  • Cognition / physiology*
  • Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Time Perception / physiology*


  • Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2
  • SLC6A3 protein, human
  • SLC6A4 protein, human
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • ANKK1 protein, human
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases