New fundamental discoveries in stem cell biology have yielded potentially transformative regenerative therapeutics. However, widespread implementation of stem-cell-derived therapeutics remains sporadic. Barriers that impede the development of these therapeutics can be linked to our incomplete understanding of how the regulatory networks that encode stem cell fate govern the development of the complex tissues and organs that are ultimately required for restorative function. Bioengineering tools, strategies and design principles represent core components of the stem cell bioengineering toolbox. Applied to the different layers of complexity present in stem-cell-derived systems - from gene regulatory networks in single stem cells to the systemic interactions of stem-cell-derived organs and tissues - stem cell bioengineering can address existing challenges and advance regenerative medicine and cellular therapies.