Functional characterization of unique enzymes in Xanthomonas euvesicatoria related to degradation of arabinofurano-oligosaccharides on hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins

PLoS One. 2018 Aug 9;13(8):e0201982. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201982. eCollection 2018.


In this study, we clarified the functions of three uncharacterized enzymes, XCV2724, XCV2728, and XCV2729, in Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, the causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper. The genes corresponding to the three enzymes are homologs of hypBA1, hypBA2, and hypAA from Bifidobacterium longum and are unique to Xanthomonas spp. among plant pathogenic bacteria. Functional characterization of the recombinant enzymes expressed using microbial systems revealed that they degrade the arabinofurano-oligosaccharides present on hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) such as extensin and solanaceous lectins in plant cell walls. These enzymes work coordinately to degrade the oligosaccharides. First, XeHypAA (XCV2728), belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 43 family, releases L-arabinose from L-arabinofuranose (Araf)-α1,3-Araf-ß1,2-Araf-ß1,2-Araf-ß-Hyp (Ara4-Hyp), cleaving its α1,3 bond; second, XeHypBA2 (XCV2729), belonging to the GH121 family, releases the disaccharide Araf-ß1,2-Araf from Araf-ß1,2-Araf-ß1,2-Araf-ß-Hyp (Ara3-Hyp); finally, XeHypBA1 (XCV2724), belonging to GH family 127, releases L-arabinose from Araf-ß-Hyp (Ara-Hyp). In summary, the main oligosaccharide structure of Ara4-Hyp on the HRGPs is degraded to Ara3-Hyp, then to Ara-Hyp, and finally to Ara monosaccharides by the action of these three enzymes. HRGPs containing oligosaccharide substrates have been reported to contribute to plant defense, and interestingly, the promoter region of the operon (xehypBA2 and xehypAA) contains the plant-inducible promoter box for binding the regulator protein HrpX involved in pathogenicity. We then analyzed the expression level of the operon gene in hrp-inducing medium and in plants and constructed gene-deletion mutants. However, although the operon was evidently upregulated by HrpX, three single-gene deletion mutants (ΔxehypBA1, ΔxehypBA2, ΔxehypAA) and even a triple-gene deletion mutant (ΔxehypBA1-BA2-AA) remained pathogenic, and had no effect on nonhost resistance, either, indicating that these three enzymes are not involved in either pathogenicity or nonhost resistance reactions. This is the first report of enzymes in plant pathogenic bacteria that catalyze the degradation of Hyp-linked-L-arabinofuranosides in plant cell walls.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabinose / analogs & derivatives
  • Arabinose / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Bifidobacterium / enzymology
  • Catalysis
  • Cell Wall / metabolism
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Glycoproteins / chemistry*
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Hydroxyproline / chemistry*
  • Mutation
  • Oligosaccharides / metabolism*
  • Plants / microbiology
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Xanthomonas / enzymology
  • Xanthomonas / genetics*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • arabinofuranose
  • Arabinose
  • Glycoside Hydrolases
  • Hydroxyproline

Grants and funding

This research was supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (No. 23780042 and 25450061) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, on data collection and analysis.