The Effects of M2M and Adapted Yoga on Physical and Psychosocial Outcomes in People With Multiple Sclerosis

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019 Mar;100(3):391-400. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.06.032. Epub 2018 Aug 6.


Objective: To investigate the effects of two 12-week exercise training interventions, movement-to-music (M2M) and adapted yoga (AY), on physical and psychosocial outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Design: Three-arm randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial.

Setting: A community-based fitness facility.

Participants: Participants (N=81) with MS (Patient Determined Disease Steps [PDDS] self-reported disease status scores: 0-6) between ages of 18 and 65 years were randomized to M2M (n=27), AY (n=26), or waitlist control (n=28).

Interventions: Both M2M and AY completed three 60-minute exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. Waitlist controls received biweekly newsletters via mail that contained educational information on living with MS.

Main outcome measures: Primary measures were timed Up and Go (TUG, s) test, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, m), and 5 times sit-to-stand test (FTSST, s). Secondary measures were self-reported outcomes assessed using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Fatigue and Pain Interference Short Form 8a. Participants were evaluated at baseline and postintervention. Primary analyses were performed using an intent-to-treat mixed model analysis of covariance.

Results: Comparisons across all 3 groups revealed significant group differences in TUG and 6MWT. Post hoc analyses indicated significant improvements in TUG (least square mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.9s [-3.3 to -0.5], P=.01, d=0.7) and 6MWT (41.0m [2.2-80.0], P=.04, d=0.6; controlled for PDDS) in M2M compared to controls, while no significant differences were observed when compared AY to controls. No significant group differences were found in FTSST, fatigue, and pain interference.

Conclusions: M2M may be a useful and enjoyable exercise form for people with MS in improving mobility and walking endurance and merits long-term study in larger study populations.

Trial registration: NCT02533882.

Keywords: Dancing; Exercise; Multiple sclerosis; Rehabilitation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Exercise / psychology
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Exercise Therapy / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis / physiopathology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / psychology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / therapy*
  • Music / psychology*
  • Music Therapy / methods*
  • Physical Endurance
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Walk Test
  • Walking
  • Yoga / psychology*
  • Young Adult

Associated data