The continuing rise in the global prevalence of diabetes and overweight or obesity has become a major burden for global health, as the pandemic is affecting both high and low-middle income countries (LMIC). At the same time, a similar pattern has been observed for all forms of hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP), diabetes during pregnancy and gestational diabetes. The offspring of mothers with HIP and/or overweight-obesity is receiving increasing attention as advances in early detection and treatment of HIP did not completely prevent macrosomia and its associated short-term perinatal disorders, whilst long term consequences are observed in the mother and in offspring as it reaches adulthood. This review discusses the current developments in the consequences of HIP in the offspring, with a particular focus on its long-term health at adulthood, and on intergenerational and transgenerational effects. HIP is emerging as one of the factors that can contribute, during the window of sensitivity to environmental cues constituted by the preconception, pregnancy, and early childhood, and as an amplifying factor linked to reproduction, to the current global epidemic of diabetes and non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
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