Background: Diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the performance of computer-aided detection for tuberculosis (CAD4TB) in people living with diabetes mellitus (PLWD) in Indonesia.
Methods: PLWD underwent symptom screening and chest X-ray (CXR); sputum was examined in those with positive symptoms and/or CXR. Digital CXRs were scored using CAD4TB and analysed retrospectively using clinical and microbiological diagnosis as a reference. The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) of CAD4TB scores was determined, and an optimal threshold score established. Agreement between CAD4TB and the radiologist's reading was determined.
Results: Among 346 included PLWD, seven (2.0%) had microbiologically confirmed and two (0.6%) had clinically diagnosed TB. The highest agreement of CAD4TB with radiologist reading was achieved using a threshold score of 70 (κ = 0.41, P < 0.001). The AUC for CAD4TB was 0.89 (95%CI 0.73-1.00). A threshold score of 65 for CAD4TB resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of respectively 88.9% (95%CI 51.8-99.7), 88.5% (95%CI 84.6-91.7), 17.0% (95%CI 7.6-30.8) and 99.6% (95%CI 98.2-100). With this threshold, 48 (13.9%) individuals needed microbiological examination and no microbiologically confirmed cases were missed.
Conclusions: CAD4TB has potential as a triage tool for TB screening in PLWD, thereby significantly reducing the need for microbiological examination.