Differential Antibody Responses to Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Differential Immune Protections between Live and Inactivated Vibrio parahemolyticus

J Proteome Res. 2018 Sep 7;17(9):2987-2994. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00176. Epub 2018 Aug 23.


It is widely accepted that live vaccines elicit higher immune protection than inactivated vaccines. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, an array with 64 recombinant outer membrane proteins of Vibrio parahemolyticus was developed to explore antibody responses of live and inactivated V. parahemolyticus post immunization of the 8th, 12th, 16th and 20th day. Among the 64 outer membrane proteins, 28 elicited antibody generation. They were all detected in live vaccine-induced immunity but only 15 antibodies were found in inactivated vaccine-induced immunity. Passive immunization showed that higher percent survival was detected in live than inactivated vaccine-induced immunities. Active immunization indicated that out of 19 randomly selected outer membrane proteins, 5 stimulated immune protection against V. parahemolyticus infection. Among them, antibodies to VP2309 and VPA0526 were shared in mice immunized by live or inactivated vaccines, whereas antibodies to VPA0548, VPA1745, and VP1667 were only found in mice immunized by live vaccine. In addition, live V. parahemolyticus stimulated earlier antibody response than inactivated bacteria. These results indicate that not all of the outer membrane proteins elicited antibody responses when they work together in the form of live or inactivated bacteria; live vaccine elicits more protective antibodies, which contribute to higher immune protection in live vaccine than inactivated vaccine. Notably, the recombinant proteins might be different from those separated from live bacteria, and they might be different in their immunogenic potencies.

Keywords: Vibrio parahemolyticus; antibody response; inactivated vaccine; live vaccine; outer membrane protein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / biosynthesis*
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / immunology*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Bacterial Vaccines / genetics
  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Immune Sera / administration & dosage
  • Immunity, Humoral / drug effects*
  • Immunization, Passive / methods
  • Immunogenicity, Vaccine
  • Mice
  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / immunology
  • Survival Analysis
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Vibrio Infections / immunology
  • Vibrio Infections / microbiology
  • Vibrio Infections / mortality
  • Vibrio Infections / prevention & control*
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus / drug effects
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus / growth & development
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus / immunology
  • Zebrafish


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Immune Sera
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Vaccines, Inactivated