Staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) proteins, one of the major virulence factor families produced by Staphylococcus aureus, were previously demonstrated to be immune evasion molecules that interfere with a variety of innate immune defences. However, in contrast to characterised SSLs, which inhibit immune functions, we show that SSL13 is a strong activator of neutrophils via the formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). Moreover, our data show that SSL13 acts as a chemoattractant and induces degranulation and oxidative burst in neutrophils. As with many other staphylococcal immune evasion proteins, SSL13 shows a high degree of human specificity. SSL13 is not able to efficiently activate mouse neutrophils, hampering in vivo experiments. In conclusion, SSL13 is a neutrophil chemoattractant and activator that acts via FPR2. Therefore, SSL13 is a unique SSL member that does not belong to the immune evasion class but is a pathogen alarming molecule. Our study provides a new concept of SSLs; SSLs not only inhibit host immune processes but also recruit human neutrophils to the site of infection. This new insight allows us to better understand complex interactions between host and S. aureus pathological processes.
Keywords: FPR2; SSL13; Staphylococcus aureus; activation; neutrophils.
© 2018 The Authors Cellular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.