Tuberculosis (TB) is now among the top ten causes of mortality worldwide being resulted in 1.7 million deaths including 0.4 million among people with HIV in 2016. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only available TB vaccine which fails to provide consistent protection against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents despite being efficacious at protecting infants and young children from the most severe, often deadly forms of TB disease. To achieve the goal of global TB elimination by 2050 we will need new interventions including more improved vaccines that are effective in adult individuals who have not been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as latently infected or immunocompromised subjects. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates including whole cell vaccines, adjuvanted proteins, and vectored subunit vaccines have entered into the clinical trials. These new TB vaccines are hoped to provide encouraging safety and immunogenicity under various conditions including prevention of TB disease in adolescents and adults, as BCG replacement/boosters, or as therapeutic vaccines to reduce the duration of TB therapy. In this review, we will discuss the status of novel TB vaccine candidates currently under development in preclinical or clinical phases.
Keywords: Clinical trials; Mycobacterial antigens; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis; Vaccines.
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