Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in lung transplant recipients with acute respiratory failure: Beyond the perioperative period

J Crit Care. 2018 Oct:47:287-294. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.07.028. Epub 2018 Aug 1.


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes in MICU lung transplant recipients with acute respiratory failure treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and identify factors associated with NPPV failure (need for intubation).

Methods: Retrospective chart review of all lung transplant recipients who were admitted with acute respiratory failure to the MICU from January 2009-August 2016 was completed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were independently associated with NPPV failure.

Results: Of 156 patients included in the study, 125 (80.1%) were tried on NPPV. Sixty-eight (54.4%) were managed successfully with NPPV with a hospital survival rate of 94.1%. Subjects who failed NPPV had higher hospital mortality, similar to those intubated from the outset (15 [48.3%]; 22 [38.6%], p = .37). In multivariate analyses, APACHE III scores >78 (9.717 [3.346, 28.22]) and PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 151 (4.54 [1.72, 11.99]) were associated with greater likelihood of NPPV failure. There was no difference in NPPV failure based on the presence of BOS. In patients with high severity of illness, there was no difference in mortality between initial IMV and NPPV failure when stratified on the basis of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 > 151, p-value 0.34; PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 151, p-value 0.99).

Conclusions: NPPV is a viable option for lung transplant recipients with acute respiratory failure. Extreme caution should be exercised when used in patients with high severity of illness (APACHE III >78) and/or severe hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 151).

Keywords: Acute respiratory failure; Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; Lung transplant; Medical intensive care unit; Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia
  • Lung Diseases / surgery*
  • Lung Transplantation / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Perioperative Period
  • Positive-Pressure Respiration / methods*
  • Postoperative Period
  • Probability
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome / therapy*
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / surgery
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / therapy*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Transplant Recipients*