Sex Differences in Neuropathology and Cognitive Behavior in APP/PS1/tau Triple-Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Neurosci Bull. 2018 Oct;34(5):736-746. doi: 10.1007/s12264-018-0268-9. Epub 2018 Aug 11.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly, characterized by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation in the brain, as well as impaired cognitive behaviors. A sex difference in the prevalence of AD has been noted, while sex differences in the cerebral pathology and relevant molecular mechanisms are not well clarified. In the present study, we systematically investigated the sex differences in pathological characteristics and cognitive behavior in 12-month-old male and female APP/PS1/tau triple-transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD mice) and examined the molecular mechanisms. We found that female 3×Tg-AD mice displayed more prominent amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuroinflammation, and spatial cognitive deficits than male 3×Tg-AD mice. Furthermore, the expression levels of hippocampal protein kinase A-cAMP response element-binding protein (PKA-CREB) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) also showed sex difference in the AD mice, with a significant increase in the levels of p-PKA/p-CREB and a decrease in the p-p38 in female, but not male, 3×Tg-AD mice. We suggest that an estrogen deficiency-induced PKA-CREB-MAPK signaling disorder in 12-month-old female 3×Tg-AD mice might be involved in the serious pathological and cognitive damage in these mice. Therefore, sex differences should be taken into account in investigating AD biomarkers and related target molecules, and estrogen supplementation or PKA-CREB-MAPK stabilization could be beneficial in relieving the pathological damage in AD and improving the cognitive behavior of reproductively-senescent females.

Keywords: 3×Tg-AD mouse; Amyloid plaque; Neurofibrillary tangle; Neuroinflammation; Sex difference; Spatial memory.

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology*
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / genetics
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Hippocampus / pathology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation / psychology
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / physiology
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neurofibrillary Tangles / metabolism
  • Neurofibrillary Tangles / pathology
  • Plaque, Amyloid / metabolism
  • Plaque, Amyloid / pathology
  • Plaque, Amyloid / psychology
  • Presenilin-1 / genetics
  • Presenilin-1 / metabolism
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Spatial Memory / physiology
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • tau Proteins / genetics
  • tau Proteins / metabolism


  • APP protein, human
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
  • Creb1 protein, mouse
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • MAPT protein, human
  • PSEN1 protein, human
  • Presenilin-1
  • tau Proteins
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases