Effect of extrusion on folic acid concentration and mineral element dialyzability in Great Northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Food Chem. 2018 Dec 15:269:118-124. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.124. Epub 2018 Jun 26.


Great Northern beans (GNB) contain appreciable magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), together with the heat-labile vitamin, folate, and the anti-nutritional compound phytate. Thus, the objective was to increase dialyzability of essential mineral elements while degrading phytate and minimizing destruction of folate through extrusion of GNB. Extrusion resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in dialyzability of Mg, P, K, and Fe by as much as 50%, 30%, 5%, and 79%, respectively, while decreasing cadmium (Cd) dialyzability. Screw speed (SS) had a significant quadratic effect on dialyzability of all elements. Low MC resulted in a significant reduction (46%) in phytate, although this was accompanied by as much as 24% destruction of folate. In conclusion, low barrel temperature, medium MC and high SS were identified as the optimum conditions to maximize essential mineral element dialyzability and folate retention while minimizing phytate and dialyzable Cd.

Keywords: Bio-accessibility; Dry beans; Folic acid; Iron; Magnesium; Phytic acid.

MeSH terms

  • Folic Acid / chemistry
  • Folic Acid / isolation & purification*
  • Iron
  • Minerals / chemistry
  • Minerals / isolation & purification*
  • Phaseolus / chemistry*
  • Phaseolus / metabolism
  • Phytic Acid


  • Minerals
  • Phytic Acid
  • Folic Acid
  • Iron