Assessment of barriers and facilitators in the implementation of appropriate use criteria for elective percutaneous coronary interventions: a qualitative study

BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018 Aug 13;18(1):164. doi: 10.1186/s12872-018-0901-6.


Background: The use of inappropriate elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) has decreased over time, but hospital-level variation in the use of inappropriate PCI persists. Understanding the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) guidelines may inform efforts to improve elective PCI appropriateness.

Methods: All hospitals performing PCI in Washington State were categorized by their use of inappropriate elective PCI in 2010 to 2013. Semi-structured, qualitative telephone interviews were then conducted with 17 individual interviews at 13 sites in Washington State to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the AUC guidelines. An inductive and deductive, team-based analytical approach, drawing primarily on Matrix analysis was performed to identify factors affecting implementation of the AUC.

Results: Specific facilitators were identified that supported successful implementation of the AUC. These included collaborative catheterization laboratory environments that allow all staff to participate with questions and opinions; ongoing AUC education with catheterization laboratory teams and referring providers; internal AUC peer review processes; interventional cardiologist be directly involved with the pre-procedural review process; checklist-based algorithms for pre-procedural documentation; systems redesign to include insurance companies; and AUC educational information with patients. Barriers to implementation of the AUC included external pressures, such as competition for patients, and the lack of shared medical records with sites that referred patients for coronary angiography.

Conclusions: The identified facilitators enabled sites to successfully implement the AUC. Catheterization laboratories struggling to successfully implement the AUC may consider utilizing these strategies to improve their processes to improve patient selection for elective PCI.

Keywords: Appropriate use criteria; Ischemic heart disease; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Qualitative.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiology Service, Hospital / standards
  • Education, Medical, Continuing / standards
  • Elective Surgical Procedures
  • Guideline Adherence / standards*
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Hospitals, High-Volume / standards
  • Hospitals, Low-Volume / standards
  • Humans
  • Inservice Training / standards
  • Myocardial Ischemia / diagnosis
  • Myocardial Ischemia / surgery*
  • Patient Care Team / standards
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / standards*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards*
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / standards*
  • Qualitative Research
  • Referral and Consultation / standards
  • Washington