Objective: Type 1 diabetes has been associated with high rates of urinary and sexual problems, but the cumulative burden and overlap of these complications are unknown. We sought to determine prevalence of urological complications in persons with type 1 diabetes, associations with clinical and diabetes-related factors, and rates of emergence, persistence, and remission.
Research design and methods: This ancillary longitudinal study among participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and observational follow-up study Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) (652 women and 713 men) was conducted in 2003 and 2010/2011. Urinary incontinence (UI), lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary tract infection, female sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, low male sexual desire, and orgasmic dysfunction were measured with validated instruments. Logistic regression determined association of complications with demographics and clinical characteristics.
Results: Of sexually active women completing the 2010/2011 survey, 35% reported no complications, 39% had one, 19% two, 5% three, and 2% four. In men, 31% had no complications, 36% had one, 22% two, 9% three, and 3% four. Sexual dysfunction was most prevalent (42% women and 45% men) followed by UI in women (31%) and low sexual desire in men (40%). Urological complications were associated with age, BMI, and HbA1c. Remission rates ranged from 4 to 12% over the 7-year interval between surveys.
Conclusions: Urological complications are prevalent and frequently co-occur in persons with type 1 diabetes. Remission rates in a minority subset indicate a rationale for future studies to mitigate the onset or impact of urological complications of diabetes.
© 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.