Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease characterized by synovial proliferation and tissue destruction. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a key role in the disease process and elevate energy expenditure, which further increases the joint pain and stiffness. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-arthritic potential of fenugreek mucilage in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. In the present study, paw volume was measured on the 7th, 14th and 21st day. Finally, animals were anaesthetized; blood samples and tissues were collected for the assay of inflammatory enzymes like cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase; evaluated the level of cytokines like IL-6, TNF-α, arthritic index and rheumatoid factor. Fenugreek mucilage exhibited maximum percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 75 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug, indomethacin. The activities of inflammatory enzymes and concentration of mediators were decreased on treatment with fenugreek mucilage. Cytology of synovial fluid showed mild inflammation with normal synoviocytes (mesothelial cells) tried to bring back to normal characteristics on supplementation with fenugreek mucilage. Based on the observations, it can be suggested that fenugreek mucilage possesses promising anti-arthritic property and it can be used as a therapeutic agent for arthritis.
Keywords: Arthritis; Cyclooxygenase; Fenugreek mucilage; IL-6; Lipoxygenase; TNF-α.
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