Among adult lymphoma survivors, radiation treatment techniques that increase the excess radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs) put patients at risk for increased side effects, especially late toxicities. Minimizing radiation to OARs in adults patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas involving the mediastinum is the deciding factor for the choice of treatment modality. Proton therapy may help to reduce the radiation dose to the OARs and reduce toxicities, especially the risks for cardiac morbidity and second cancers. Because proton therapy may have some disadvantages, identifying the patients and the circumstances that may benefit the most from proton therapy is important. We present modern guidelines to identify adult lymphoma patients who may derive the greatest benefit from proton therapy, along with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of proton treatment.
© 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.