Craniofacial venous malformations treated by percutaneous sclerotherapy using polidocanol: a single-center experience

Acta Radiol. 2019 May;60(5):593-601. doi: 10.1177/0284185118795326. Epub 2018 Aug 15.


Background: Percutaneous therapy with various sclerosants is an established treatment of venous malformations in general. We investigated the safety and effectiveness of polidocanol in the craniofacial region.

Purpose: To present and evaluate our subjective and objective mid- and long-term results of patients with craniofacial venous malformations (CFVM) after percutaneous sclerotherapy using polidocanol.

Material and methods: Twenty patients with CFVM treated by percutaneous sclerotherapy were followed up and asked to fill in a questionnaire comparing levels of the following CFVM-related symptoms before and after treatment: pain; functional impairment; cosmetic deformities; and impairment in daily life. Additionally, both size reduction as well as procedural-related complication rates were analyzed.

Results: Evaluation of the questionnaire revealed an improvement or complete relief of CFVM-related symptoms with significant reduced impairment in daily life after percutaneous sclerotherapy. Eighteen (90%) patients noticed a post-sclerotherapy improvement of at least one of their corresponding symptoms and expressed satisfaction with regard to their treatment. For 13 patients, a > 50% size reduction of the CFVM could be observed, while seven exhibited a < 50% size reduction. One minor complication was encountered in 56 treatment sessions (1.8%).

Conclusion: Percutaneous sclerotherapy using polidocanol is a well-tolerated treatment for CFVM with a low complication rate. Size reduction and positive results with improvement of different clinical symptoms can be achieved.

Keywords: Face; head/neck; polidocanol; sclerotherapy; vascular; veins.

MeSH terms

  • Face
  • Humans
  • Neck
  • Polidocanol / therapeutic use*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sclerosing Solutions / therapeutic use*
  • Sclerotherapy / methods*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Malformations / therapy*


  • Sclerosing Solutions
  • Polidocanol