Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis are major neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal pathogenic proteins due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired autophagy, and pathogens, leading to neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. Herein, we reviewed the utility of plant polyphenols in regulating proliferation and differentiation of stem cells for inducing brain self-repair in AD and multiple sclerosis. Firstly, we discussed the genetic, physiological, and environmental factors involved in the pathophysiology of both the disorders. Next, we reviewed various stem cell therapies available and how they have proved useful in animal models of AD and multiple sclerosis. Lastly, we discussed how polyphenols utilize the potential of stem cells, either complementing their therapeutic effects or stimulating endogenous and exogenous neurogenesis, against these diseases. We suggest that polyphenols could be a potential candidate for stem cell therapy against neurodegenerative disorders.