The current review focuses on the studies conducted on the colonization of microorganisms on orthodontic ligatures during orthodontic treatment. The fixed orthodontic appliances have long been associated with an increase in plaque accumulation, bacterial colonization, and resultant enamel decalcification. Voluminous research has been carried out on the microbial colonization of even newer orthodontic materials such as elastomeric ligatures with an evidence of variably increased microbial counts during orthodontic treatment. However, conclusive material-based data for minimal microbial colonization to establish acceptance criteria for the use of elastomeric ligatures are hardly available. Thus, there is a need for further studies with dual emphasis on exploring microbial associations based on surface chemistries of different elastomers and their requisite modifications for hampering microbial biofilms to evolve efficacious oral health friendly orthodontic ligatures.
Keywords: Orthodontic ligatures; biofilm; elastomers; microbial colonization.